Hallmarks of aging

Hallmarks of aging

Genomic instability

Damage to DNA leading to mutations and cellular dysfunction.

Telomere attrition

Shortening the protective caps on chromosomes is associated with cell aging.

Epigenetic alterations

Changes in gene expression patterns without alterations to DNA sequence.

Loss of proteostasis

Decline in cell's ability to maintain protein structure and function.

Disabled Macroautophagy

When damaged organelles and proteins aren't cleared properly, leading to cellular dysfunction.

De-regulated nutrient sensing

Disruption in cellular response to nutrient levels, affecting metabolism.

Mitochondrial dysfunction

Impaired energy production and increased oxidative stress due to dysfunctional mitochondria.

Cellular Senescence

Permanent growth arrest in cells contributes to tissue aging and dysfunction.

Stem cell exhaustion

Reduced ability of stem cells to regenerate tissues and organs.

Altered intercellular communication

Dysfunctional signaling between cells, impacting tissue homeostasis.

Chronic Inflammation

Persistent, low-grade bodily inflammation often due to an overactive immune response, contributing to various diseases.


Imbalance in gut microbes, impacting health.